The Fioretti of St Thomas, from sworn testimonies at the canonisation enquiry – Part III: The Miracles after his Death23-min read (inc. footnotes)

St Thomas Aquinas

St Thomas, Universal Doctor – Fr Edward Leen CSSP
The Holy Wrath of St Thomas Aquinas – G.K. Chesterton
On the Five Qualities of Prayer – St Thomas Aquinas
True Law – According to the Teaching of St Thomas Aquinas
What is Thomism? The Twenty-Four Thomistic Theses

The Fioretti of St Thomas:
Part I: His Life
Part II: His Death
Part III: The Miracles after his Death

This is the final part in our series summarising and re-ordering of the testimonies given in St Thomas’s 1319 canonisation enquiry.[1]

These are not just pious stories written by hagiographers: they are sworn testimonies recounted under oath by respectable men, both from the clergy and from the nobility. We see amongst the laymen even civil officers such as a judge, a chancellor and a notary. Many of the witnesses were actually eyewitnesses to what they recount. Fr Kenelm Foster OP – who reproduces the enquiry in his book The Life of St Thomas Aquinas – Biographical Documents – also states that “the witnesses were interrogated separately and privately.”[2]

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Image: Sebastiano Ricci, St Thomas Aquinas and St Pius V, Wiki Commons

In the first part, I mentioned the informative witness, Lord Bartholomew of Capua, Chancellor and Protonotary of Sicily. He knew many of the Dominicans in Naples, and recounted under oath what they had told him.

I have selected the most interesting stories and reordered the material in a largely chronological way. The full enquiry – which we will make available shortly, but can also be found in Foster’s Life of St Thomas and on the Bellarmine Forums – contains many other details, which I have omitted for brevity. However, those omitted repetitions and other lists of witnesses show how compelling and serious these testimonies are.

This part begins with an interlude, describing how St Thomas’s teacher, St Albert the Great, defended his pupil after his death.

The blind sub-prior healed

We then continue from where we left off in Part II. The blind Cistercian sub-prior of Fossanova has been cured by touching St Thomas’s body, which is then buried near the high altar of the abbey Church, in a damp, marshy spot.

Lord Bartholomew is insistent on the dampness of the location, no doubt because it makes the subsequent preservation of St Thomas’s body all the more remarkable.

All of the pictures in this series are taken from Othonis Vaeni’s Vita D. Thomae Aquinatis, which is available also for UK readers and at Internet Archive thanks to “M. M. Dan”.


INTERLUDE: THE LOYALTY OF ST THOMAS’S TEACHER

How St Albert comported himself after St Thomas’s death, and how he defended his student

St Albert and his greatest student

[St Albert the Great] had been Thomas’s master; and he wept much when news came that his pupil was dead, and afterwards whenever he was reminded of him, calling him the flower and beauty of this world. Indeed the brethren were troubled by so much sorrow in Albert and thought his many tears a symptom of senile weakness.

And when, later, it was rumoured that Thomas’s writings were being attacked at Paris, Albert said he desired to go there to defend them. This did not please the brethren; Albert was an old man, the journey would be a long one; and especially they feared that, were Albert to go to Paris now, his authority and reputation there would suffer, since he was now in decline and his memory and general intelligence were not what they had been. So for a while they managed to dissuade him.

But finally Albert – who was also an archbishop or bishop – decided that he would go, come what might of it; such noble writings must be defended!

So he went to Paris, with brother Hugh (so the latter told the witness) as his socius. And after their arrival, there was a general assembly of masters and students at the Friar Preachers” school, and Albert spoke from the chair on the text: “Quae laus vive, si laudatur a mortuis?”; making this mean that it was Thomas who was alive and the others who were dead, and proceeding to praise and glorify Thomas in the highest terms. He was ready, he said, to defend the shining truth and holiness of Thomas’s writings before the most competent critics.

Then [St Albert] returned to Cologne, still accompanied by brother Hugh. And once returned, he caused all Thomas’s writings to be read out to him in a definite order; after which, at a solemn assembly convened for the purpose, he pronounced a great panegyric of Thomas, ending with an assertion that the latter’s work had put an end to everyone else’s, and henceforth to the end of the world all other men’s labour would be to no purpose.

And, as brother Hugh told the witness, Albert could never hear Thomas named without shedding tears.

Lord Bartholomew of Capua, Chancellor and Protonotary of Sicily, given under oath 8 August 1319


PART III: THE MIRACLES AFTER HIS DEATH

ST THOMAS’S BODY

St Thomas’s body is moved to a new resting place and fills the church with fragrance

Moving the body after the burial

When Thomas died his body was buried at first before the high altar, but then the monks, fearing it might be taken from them, transferred it secretly to St. Stephen’s Chapel in the same abbey-church.

But about seven months later Thomas appeared in a dream to a brother James, who was prior at the time, and said: “Take me back where I was at first.” So they took him back, with due solemnity. (This dream was and still is commonly talked about in the monastery.)

And when the tomb was opened a delicious fragrance came out, filling all the chapel and cloister: whereupon the community sang the Mass Os justi meditabitur sapientiam, etc., in honour of Thomas as of a saint; they thought the Mass Pro defunctis hardly suitable for such a man.

Asked who were present, he said “the whole community”. […] Asked who had called him to the place where the fragrance was smelt, he said he himself smelled it; it drew him to where the tomb was.

Nicholas, Cistercian Abbot of Fossanova, given under oath 24 July 1319

Eyewitness of the incorrupt body, and how fourteen years later St Thomas’s hand was given to his sister as a relic, completely intact

[Nicholas of Priverno] had seen Thomas lying ill at Fossanova, whither he had come from the castle of Maenza, where he had broken the journey he was making towards Lyons in order (the witness had been informed) to take part in the Council held in the time of Gregory X. It was since that date that the witness had heard of the holiness of Thomas and of his constant virginity; he had not seen or known him before.

But he saw him, during that stay in the monastery, always humble, kindly and patient, never upset or annoyed in those last days of his life… The witness had been told that Thomas had been invited to the Council because he was thought to be one of the wisest and best men in the world. […]

The witness said that a long while – about seven months – after Thomas’s death, when his body was taken from the chapel of St. Stephen to the grave in front of the high altar, the witness saw the body intact and smelled a strong and sweet scent that came from it.

And later, about fourteen years after Thomas’s death, the grave was reopened at the request of one of his sisters, the Countess Theodora, who desired a relic of him; and one of the hands from the body was given to her. And the body was still intact and very fragrant.

Asked how he knew these things, the witness said he was present and saw them and smelled the fragrance both times.

Nicholas of Priverno, lay brother at Fossanova, given under oath 26 July 1319

Relic of St Thomas’s thumb completely preserved like that of a living man

Asked about miracles… the witness said that fifteen years after the death of brother Thomas he went, as prior of Durazzo, to the Provincial Chapter of the Friar Preachers at Anagni, where he was shown a thumb taken from one of Thomas’s hands. This thumb had been given by Reginald of Priverno, the usual socius of brother Thomas, to the lord brother Hugh, the bishop of Ostia. The hand itself was in the possession of the lady countess, Thomas’s sister.

The thumb (said the witness) was whole and healthy; in fact, it seemed fresh, with the skin, nail, flesh, bones, and colour, like the thumb of a living man.

John of Boiano, an old Dominican priest, given under oath 11 August 1319

Witness himself recently smelled the beautiful fragrance of St Thomas’s bones

Finally, the witness said that when he arrived at Fossanova he went to the sacristy and asked Richard the sacristan to show him the chest containing some of brother Thomas’s bones. […]

And when he opened the chest a strong scent came out of it, unlike any odour in nature. On his asking the sacristan about this the latter swore by the altar that he had not put anything on the bones to make them smell. They always had that scent. And the witness added that one experiences more or less of the scent according to the degree of one’s devotion.

He saw these relics first in the octave of Easter this year, and afterwards many times until he left the monastery on 15 July [viz. less than a month before the enquiry].

William of Tocco, old Dominican Priest and Prior of Benevento, given Saturday 4 August 1319


Note on St Thomas’s bones

Readers will note that in 1319, all that is left of the previously incorrupt body are the bones. Foster tells us, in addition to William of Tocco’s testimony:

Translation of the relics

“An eyewitness of the final translation of the saint’s remains to Toulouse in 1368 (by order of Pope Urban V) stated that it was commonly believed in his time that the monks of Fossanova had boiled the body so as to preserve it ‘in parvo loco’, and he described the bones as of a reddish colour, looking as if by boiling or some other change effected by head they had been violently detached from the flesh.”[3]

As the quote suggests, his remains were eventually translated to Toulouse.

Having seen the miraculous events around the movement of the body, let us see the other miracles and graces granted through St Thomas’s intercession and visits to his tomb.


MIRACLES GRANTED THROUGH THE INTERCESSION OF ST THOMAS

Some Fossanova Cistercians doubtful about St Thomas’s sanctity punished and then healed

Asked about miracles, the witness replied that at the time when brother William of Tocco and his socius – Friar Preachers both and engaged in the enquiry concerning Thomas – were staying at the abbey of Fossanova they had the use of two mules to carry them about, and these had to be shod; and the witness, being a blacksmith, was required to see to this; and being bored by the work, this thought came into his mind:

“How these Dominicans pester and plague us with their brother Thomas! If he was really a saint why doesn’t he work a miracle to settle the matter? And then these friars would leave us alone!”

Now he had no sooner said this to himself than he felt a terrible pain in the right arm: and it became motionless so that he could not even lift his hand to his mouth.

And so it remained until the following day; but then, remembering his evil thought, his conscience reproved him; and, going to the grave of brother Thomas, he laid his paralysed arm on it and remained there, praying for an hour; after which the arm suddenly became well again, so that on the following Monday he was able to resume his work; and from that time on he very gladly shod mules for the Friar Preachers. […]

His own cure, he added, was common knowledge in the monastery and the neighbourhood.

Leonard of Priverno, given under oath 26 July 1319

Paralysed arm cured at the tomb

Pilgrims to his later resting place, Toulouse

Asked about miracles worked by brother Thomas, the witness gave the following account of one. He had been afflicted with a complete paralysis of his right arm, so that he could not even raise his hand to comb his own hair or tie a scarf under his chin without help.

This continued for about ten months until, in the Lent of 1316, he happened to be journeying to Rome, and, coming into the neighbourhood of Terracina, he turned aside to visit the grave of brother Thomas at the abbey of Fossanova. He had been told that Thomas lay buried there, and it had crossed his mind that perhaps the merits of the holy man might help to cure his arm; indeed he soon began firmly to believe that he would be cured.

So, with two companions – Nicholas Filmarini and Henry Caracciolo, both knights of Naples like himself, and both eager to visit the tombs – he turned aside to Fossanova, leaving the other travellers to continue their journey to Rome. And entering the monastery courtyard, he met a monk who directed him towards Thomas’s grave, pointing to it from some way off. It lay, the knight says, to the left of the high altar, covered with a sort of carpet.

This he had removed, and then, kneeling on the ground and facing the grave, he prayed in these words:

“Lord God, who art wonderful in thy saints, through the merits of this thy saint restore strength to my arm.”

Then he lay down flat on the grave; and at once he felt his arm grow stronger. For a while a kind of numbness remained about the joints as though the muscles were still sluggish; but this too had vanished by the end of the same day.

Next morning he found his arm restored to perfect health; not a trace of the paralysis remained. Asked for dates, he said that the paralysis began in May 1315 and continued until May of the year following, when the cure took place.

Peter Grasso of Naples, a knight and functionary on the king around sixty years old, given under oath at the start of the enquiry, 1319

A man harassed by a devil, delivered by visiting the grave of St Thomas

Asked concerning miracles, the witness said that before he entered religion he used to work as shoemaker for the monks in a workshop by the monastery.

One day while taking a rest in that place he thought he would get up and have a drink; but just then a hairy man appeared by his bed and gripped his feet, pressing them down on the bed, and said, “Don’t move, I will bring you some water.”

So he, thinking this was one of the monastery servants, answered, “Very well, fetch me some water.”

The hairy man then went out and soon returned with water cupped in the palms of his hands, and said, “Drink!”

But when the witness looked at the man he now seemed to have taken the form of a dog, excepting his face, which was still human, but hairy and terrible; and he gave out a horrible stench, so that the witness was terrified, and hid his face, crying, “Go away, I will not drink!”

And in that fear he lost almost all his strength, and could not speak all that day, and his hands and fingers became rigid, with the thumb of the right hand drawn back against his arm and the fingers of the left hand bent over so tightly that he could not straighten them at all. His feet too had become heavy, numb, and powerless. Indeed his whole body was rigid and motionless.

In this condition he was carried to his mother’s house at Priverno, where he lay for eight days and got no better, though his mother tried all sorts of remedies.

Finally someone suggested that he should be carried to the grave of brother Thomas. His mother took this advice and had him taken to the grave and laid on it. And a little while later he suddenly got up completely cured of the contraction and rigidity and able to walk about freely and praise God for his cure. Then he continued for a time working in the monastery as a layman; until, a year later, he took the religious habit.

And ever since he has enjoyed good health, as he does now.

Peter Francisci, given under oath 26 July 1319

Crippled man healed

The witness spoke too of a Master Reginald, a cripple, who was cured at the tomb of brother Thomas.

[This] story he had from brother Octavian (mentioned above) who averred that he had seen it happen. And in the monastery these miracles were common knowledge.

Nicholas, Cistercian Abbot of Fossanova, given under oath 24 July 1319

A witness at the enquiry was only able to be present because he was delivered from gout by the intercession of St Thomas

The witness said that while waiting at Fossanova for the bishop of Viterbo – whom the Pope had appointed one of the committee to enquire into the miracles of brother Thomas – on the day before the bishop’s arrival a monk of that monastery, Dom Peter of Fondi (who was himself required as a witness in the case), said to the witness:

“Brother William, I can’t go to Naples, the gout in my feet is too bad; but I am praying to our saint; perhaps he will help me.”

But as he seemed to get no better, the witness also prayed for him with tears. And when the witness came again to the cloister where the sufferer was seated, he found the latter quite cured and walking about. And the next day he could ride off with the others to Naples. Asked when this happened, the witness said, “On 17 July”.

William of Tocco, old Dominican Priest and Prior of Benevento, given Saturday 4 August 1319

Woman cured of dropsy through prayer to St Thomas and touching his relics

Again, during his stay at the monastery, said the witness, a woman came called Stefania de Rocca, from the castle of Sonnino, who was all swollen with dropsy. She came to the gate and begged for some relic of brother Thomas for whom she had conceived a devotion and through whose merits she believed she might be cured…

The witness went out to her with a number of the monks and some relics of Thomas; and when they had all prayed together there, he touched her breast with the relies. And on her way home she found herself cured of her disease; and sent her son back to inform the witness and the monks.

And many people since have told the witness that she was perfectly cured from that day on. This happened, he said, on 12 June of this year.

William of Tocco, old Dominican Priest and Prior of Benevento, given Saturday 4 August 1319

Paralysed woman cured after making vow to visit St Thomas’s tomb

On the next day of the same month and year, while the witness was in the monastery guest-house, a poor woman came from Carpeneto, called Mary de Nicolao; who declared before many there that she had been a paralytic, and while in this state she used to come and glean in the monastery fields, so far as she could, all trembling as she was.

And the lay-brothers advised her to make a vow to brother Thomas – he would cure her. So she vowed to bring a lighted candle to his grave; and at once she was cured.

William of Tocco, old Dominican Priest and Prior of Benevento, given Saturday 4 August 1319

Terrible hip pain instantly cured through vow to visit St Thomas’s tomb barefoot with a stone around his neck

Then there was Nicholas de Leone of Sonnino who was seized with such a pain in the hip, while working in a field alone, that he thought he would never get back to his house. But remembering the many miracles worked by God at the tomb of brother Thomas… he vowed there and then to visit the tomb, barefoot and with a stone hanging from his neck.

And at once he was quite cured; and the next day came and told the witness of this.

Asked who else was present at the miracle, the witness said “nobody – the man was alone in the field”. But Richard of Fondi, the sacristan, saw Nicholas come to fulfil his vow, with the stone hanging from his neck. This happened on 16 July of this year.

William of Tocco, old Dominican Priest and Prior of Benevento, given Saturday 4 August 1319

A man with an arm so broken that it set wrongly, cured after vowing to visit St Thomas’s tomb and pardon his enemies

The witness described the case of Nicholas Massimo of Priverno.

This man had been struck on the right arm so violently that the bone was broken; and though the wound had healed, the bone remained broken, and Nicholas could not use his arm. But he allowed himself to be persuaded to make a vow to brother Thomas to pardon all his enemies and to bring a waxen arm to the saint’s tomb.

And having carried out this promise, he went to sleep; and on waking up, he knew that he was cured and began to bend his arm and work with it… And the witness, wishing to see the matter for himself, sent for Nicholas; who came to the tomb and, baring his arm, showed it to the witness who touched it with his hand and was able (he thought) to feel the break in the bone.

William of Tocco, old Dominican Priest and Prior of Benevento, given Saturday 4 August 1319

Man blind for ten years cured after visiting St Thomas’s tomb

Again, there was Peter Balie of Priverno, whose sight gradually weakened for the space of ten years, until he was quite blind.

He got himself led to the tomb; and, praying there and making a vow, he rose up with his sight fully restored.

Asked when this happened, the witness said it was in the same year that Thomas died, but the month and the day he did not know.

William of Tocco, old Dominican Priest and Prior of Benevento, given Saturday 4 August 1319

The cures at St Thomas’s tomb during an epidemic

He added that he had heard it stated publicly that one year when the town of Priverno – which lies one or two miles from the monastery – was afflicted by a dangerous epidemic, the sick used to come in crowds to the tomb of brother Thomas and be cured.

It was also, he said, very commonly asserted that the monks kept quiet about many of the miracles worked by God through Thomas, because they feared to lose the custody of his body.

Lord Bartholomew of Capua, Chancellor and Protonotary of Sicily, given under oath 8 August 1319

Even from heaven, St Thomas helps a man find a particular text in the Summa

[Lord Bartholomew] added that having for some years been in the habit of reading Thomas’s works, he happened to remember one day that somewhere in one of them he had read that what was customary among Christian people should be taken as binding in law. But when he looked for this text he could not find it, though he searched diligently for several days whenever he had leisure to do so.

Finally he knelt down and asked Thomas himself to show him where it was; then he opened the Secunda secundae, and there it was under his eyes – he did not have to turn a page – in the section on fasting.

And so it was, he had found, in all his needs; brother Thomas never failed to help him, according to the degree of his faith.

Lord Bartholomew of Capua, Chancellor and Protonotary of Sicily, given under oath 8 August 1319

St Augustine and St Thomas appear in glory to Albert of Brescia, Dominican priest and student of St Thomas

Asked about miracles, [the witness, a Dominican priest called Anthony of Brescia] said that he had often heard from brother Albert of Brescia, a lector at Brescia and a saintly man, that Thomas’s holiness had been shown by miracles. This Albert was an ardent Thomist and would often say, in the course of his lectures, “Dear brothers, I know that this man is a great saint in heaven.”

So, having heard this many times, the witness and another student one day begged Albert to tell them why he was so sure of what he asserted. Brother Albert, being adjured in the name of God to explain his words, at last spoke as follows:

“My dear sons, I am, as you know, an enthusiast for Thomas of Aquino’s doctrine. I have always marvelled at his having attained to such wisdom and holiness so quickly; and I used often to pray to our Lady and Saint Augustine that his actual glory might be revealed to me.

“Now once as I knelt at our Lady’s altar and prayed more fervently than usual, and continued praying, there appeared to me – awake as I was and praying – two venerable and radiant figures. One was wearing a mitre; the other, who wore the Dominican habit, had on his head a golden and jewelled crown and around his neck two necklaces, one of gold and the other silver, and on his breast a great jewel that lit up the church; his cloak too was woven with gems, but his tunic and hood were white as snow.”

Ss Augustine and St Thomas, by Verhaghen, from Wiki Commons

Amazed by this sight, Albert fell at the feet of those figures, begging to be told their names. Then the mitred figure said to him:

“Brother Albert, why this astonishment? Your prayer has been heard. I am Augustine, Doctor of the Church; I am sent to declare to you the doctrine and glory of Thomas of Aquino, here at my side. For he is my son indeed, who faithfully followed the apostolic teaching and my own, and so illuminated the Church.

“To this these jewels bear witness, and particularly the gem on his breast which signifies the purity of his intentions as defender and declarer of the Faith. The other gems signify his many books and writings.

“He is my equal in glory, except that in the splendour of virginity he is greater than I.”

The witness and the other student whom brother Albert told of this were forbidden by him to reveal it to anyone, unless a Canonisation Enquiry should be undertaken concerning Thomas’s miracles. Asked who were present when Albert made this statement, the witness said there was no one but himself and his companion, a brother Giannino of Brescia now dead.

Anthony of Brescia, Dominican priest and student at Naples Priory, given under oath 4 August 1319


AFTERWORD: THE CANONISATION

The Canonisation

Thus we come to the end of the events recounted in the canonisation enquiry in 1319. Santiago Ramirez recounts:

“At the completion of the process of canonization, when more than 300 miracles performed by St. Thomas had been recounted, the Pontiff [John XXII] said:

“‘Why should we seek more miracles? He has performed as many miracles as he wrote articles. Truly this glorious Doctor, after the Apostles and the early Doctors, has greatly enlightened the Church.'”[4]

And to that end, turning to the notes given with each of the pictures in this series:

“When it appeared that, day after day by the grace of the Lord, His Saint was performing new and great miracles, at the insistence of many Princes and of the whole world, after a complete and sincere procedure had been conducted by the Archbishop of Naples and the Bishop of Viterbo, in communion with the whole Church, and with the consent of Pope John XXII, Thomas was elevated to the number of Saints in Avignon, in the year 1323.”[5]

SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS: PRAY FOR US!

St Thomas Aquinas

St Thomas, Universal Doctor – Fr Edward Leen CSSP
The Holy Wrath of St Thomas Aquinas – G.K. Chesterton
On the Five Qualities of Prayer – St Thomas Aquinas
True Law – According to the Teaching of St Thomas Aquinas
What is Thomism? The Twenty-Four Thomistic Theses

The Fioretti of St Thomas:
Part I: His Life
Part II: His Death
Part III: The Miracles after his Death


ST THOMAS AQUINAS: PRAY FOR US!

Summa Theologica Trans. by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province, (5 vols.) Ave Maria Press, Hardback (and UK readers) and Paperback (and UK readers). Also online at New Advent and iPieta.

Summa Theologiae, Aquinas Institute (8 vols.) Latin-English, based on the English Fathers’ translation, without the Supplementum parts. (And for UK readers) Supplementum I-68 (and UK readers) Supplementum 69-99 (and UK readers)

St Thomas Aquinas – Summa Contra Gentiles. Aquinas Institute in 2 vols: Vol. I (Books I-II) and Vol. 2 (Books III-IV) and for UK readers here and here. Budget single-volume from Aeterna Press (and for UK readers) and online at iPieta or Aquinas.cc

Aquinas – Opuscula I, from the Aquinas Institute (UK readers), containing the following:

St Thomas Aquinas – Catena Aurea (and for UK readers). 4 vols, line-by-line commentary on the four Gospels from the Fathers of the Church, assembled by St Thomas Aquinas and translated by Cardinal John Henry Newman. Published by Baronius Press.

Tradivox VI: Aquinas, Pecham, and Pagula (UK readers), including St Thomas Aquinas’s Catechetical Instructions. An arrangement of other Opuscula in catechetical form. (ca. 1260)

St Thomas Aquinas’s scriptural commentaries are being published by the Aquinas Institute in English and Latin. Here are some of the options below – they are online here, and it is possible to buy single volumes of the commentaries below:

Anger – The Doctrine of the Mystical Body According to the Principles of St Thomas Aquinas (and for UK readers). Internet Archive. Draws together several texts for which there is a bit of a lacuna in the Summa itself.

Glenn – A Tour of the Summa. A compressed one-volume account of the Summa. (UK readers)

Pegues – Catechism of the Summa Theologica for the use of the Faithful (and for UK readers)

G.K. Chesterton – St Thomas Aquinas. Classic biography. (UK link)

Foster – The Life of St Thomas Aquinas – Biographical Documents (UK readers). Online at Internet Archive.

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[1] This can be found in Kenelm Foster OP, The Life of St Thomas Aquinas – Biographical Documents, Longmans, Green and Co, London 1959, pp 82-119. https://archive.org/details/lifeofsaintthoma0000fost/

[2] Foster 119 n.2

[3] Foster, 81.

[4] Santiago Ramirez OP, ‘The Authority of St Thomas Aquinas’, in The Thomist, The Thomist Press, Washington DC, Vol. XV No. 1, January 1952, p 25. 22

[5] Othonis Vaeni’s Vita D. Thomae Aquinatis, which is available also for UK readers and at Internet Archive thanks to “M. M. Dan”. Translated via DeepL.

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